# NETCALC - an RF Impedance Calculator

CONTENTS

1. Overview
2. Entering Impedances
3. Environment Parameters
4. NETCALC Operations
5. Example - a Pi-Tank
6. NETCALC with Windows, Mac

End, Back

## NETCALC

I wrote NETCALC to meet a practical need for a simple impedance calculator for working out RF network design ideas. I hope you find it useful.

Here's how it works.

NETCALC uses a "stack" system (like the one used in HP calculators) because that is the most powerful and flexible way to implement a simple computer-based impedance calculator.

NETCALC displays two complex impedance registers, labeled X and Y. These impedances each consist of two terms: resistance and reactance. You can do things to the X impedance alone, or combine the X and Y impedances in various ways.

? is NETCALC's prompt for input. At the prompt you have three options:
1. Enter the value of an impedance into the stack; or
2. Carry out operations on impedance values already in the stack; or
3. Change one of the "environment" parameters (frequency, system impedance and velocity factor).
The results of the operations are displayed, and then you are prompted again by ? .

CONTENTS

Top

1. Overview
2. Entering Impedances
3. Environment Parameters
4. NETCALC Operations
5. Example - a Pi-Tank
6. NETCALC with Windows, Mac

End, Back

## Entering Impedances

Impedances are input and displayed in either series or parallel form.
• a+b means resistance a in series with reactance b.
• a&b means resistance a in parallel with reactance b.
You must ALWAYS specify both the resistive AND the reactive part, even if one of them is zero.

In NETCALC's impedance notation, the + sign in a+b does NOT indicate that reactance b is positive; it means only that a and b are series-connected. An impedance involving a negative reactance is indicated by a+-b or a&-b.

NETCALC understands the normal "k", "m" and "M" multipliers - in fact the whole range from "pico" to "Giga". Simply enter the first letter.
Only "m" and "M" are sensitive to Shift or Caps Lock. For the "micro" (mu) symbol, type "u" or "U" . The largest and smallest displayable numbers are 0.001p and 999.999G - a wide-enough range for most applications.

A reactance can also be input in terms of capacitance or inductance, using the notation a+bpF, a&buH, etc.
If NETCALC hasn't been told any differently, it assumes that the frequency is 1Hz - see later for instructions on changing frequency. NETCALC will then calculate the reactance, and will enter the correct impedance into the X register.

A "j" before the reactance value is not necessary. Use it if you find it helpful, although NETCALC will not display it.

When NETCALC starts up, it displays undefined impedances as 0*0. Your first input must be at least one impedance value for NETCALC to work on.

### Examples of correct impedance inputs

 50+0 50 ohms, resistive 50+5 50 ohms resistance in series with 5 ohms inductive reactance 50+j5 As above; the j is ignored 50++5 Same as 50+5. NOTE: the SECOND "+" sign is the optional one! 50+-5 50 ohms resistance in series with 5 ohms capacitive reactance 1E6&5 1 megohm resistance in parallel with 5 ohms inductive reactance 1M&+5 Same as 1E6&5; the "+" sign is optional 1M&j5 As above; the j is ignored 0+5E-3H 5mH inductance with no series resistance 10+5mH 5 millihenries inductance (note the small "m") with 10 ohms series resistance 1M&47pF 47pF capacitor with 1 megohm leakage resistance

Impedances of the type "a&0" or "0&b" are acceptable, but are physically meaningless: one half of the impedance is short-circuited by the other!

### Error Protection

If you input something that NETCALC can't interpret, the program either returns you directly to the ? prompt or produces an error message.

Press the Enter key to return from an error message to the prompt.

Attempts to use an undefined impedance, or to carry out some physically meaningless operation, will produce the error message Can't be done.

NETCALC smoothly handles calculations that produce infinite results. These are automatically approximated to extremely large values, and the calculation continues. Further operations are then likely to produce extremely small values, which NETCALC will correct to zero.

CONTENTS

Top

1. Overview
2. Entering Impedances
3. Environment Parameters
4. NETCALC Operations
5. Example - a Pi-Tank
6. NETCALC with Windows, Mac

End, Back

## Environment Parameters

NETCALC uses three "environment" parameters -
1. F is the operating frequency (initially 1Hz)
2. Z is the system impedance (initially 50 ohms)
3. V is the velocity factor for transmission lines (initially 1)
To alter any of these values, press the appropriate key (F, Z or V) and enter a new value at the bottom of the screen. To leave the present value unchanged, just press Enter.

F can be entered using the normal "k", "M" and "G" multipliers (as an exception to the normal rule, lower-case m is also assumed to mean megahertz, e.g. 14.345M = 14.345m = 14.345MHz).

Z and V are entered as plain numbers.

CONTENTS

Top

1. Overview
2. Entering Impedances
3. Environment Parameters
4. NETCALC Operations
5. Example - a Pi-Tank
6. NETCALC with Windows, Mac

End, Back

## NETCALC Operations

NETCALC keeps an operating stack of two impedances. The "current" value is called X, the other Y.

Previous values of X and Y scroll up the screen. You can look at them for reference, but you can't do anything with them.

### Operations involving Only X

 P Converts the impedance in X into parallel form (from series - ignored if X is already in parallel form). S Converts the impedance in X into series form (from parallel - ignored if X is already in series form). J Converts the impedance in X to its conjugate impedance (i.e. it flips the sign of the reactance). * Multiplies both parts of the impedance in X by a scaling factor of your choice. / Divides both parts of the impedance in X by a scaling factor of your choice. Mn Copies the impedance in X into memory n, where n = 1 to 9. X is unaffected, but the previous contents of memory n (if any) are lost. ?n Displays the contents of memory n on the bottom line. This does not affect either the impedance in X or the memory contents. For the following X-only operations, you need to have specified the frequency (F command), and also possibly the system impedance (Z) and velocity factor (V) - Q Displays the Q of the impedance in X, on the bottom line. X itself is unaffected. X Calculates the capacitance or inductance corresponding to the reactive part of the impedance in X, and displays the result on the bottom line. X is unaffected. L Calculates the length of transmission line equivalent to the reactive part of the impedance in X, and displays the result on the bottom line. X is unaffected. T Adds a transmission line of characteristic impedance Z in series with the impedance in X, transforming its impedance in most cases. You are asked to input the length of the line. Inputs < 1.0 are assumed to be in electrical wavelengths. Inputs > 1.0 are assumed to be physical millimetres, so V and F are used to calculate the electrical length. The impedance in X changes to its new impedance-transformed value. W Calculates the VSWR and return loss of X, according to the prevailing system impedance Z, and displays the result on the bottom line. X itself is unaffected.

### Operations on Both X and Y

 Keyboard entry Entering an impedance from the keyboard will affect both X and Y - the new impedance value goes into X, the old X is "pushed" up into Y, and the old Y is lost (scrolls up the screen). E Exchanges X and Y (useful in connection with memory operations, which only operate on the X register). To swap back, press E again. Rn Recalls the impedance stored in memory n and enters it into X, just as if it had been entered from the keyboard. The old X is pushed up into Y, and the old Y value is lost (scrolls up the screen). Rn does not affect the memory contents. + Adds impedance X and impedance Y in series (whatever their original forms). The result appears in X in series form, and Y becomes empty (displayed as 0*0). If you wanted the answer in parallel form, press P. & Adds impedance X and impedance Y in parallel (whatever their original forms). The result appears in X in parallel form, and Y becomes empty (displayed as 0*0). If you wanted the answer in series form, press S.

### Other Commands

 Esc Exits from NETCALC (press Y to confirm). H Displays a Help screen containing a summary of this information. When not in use for input/output, the bottom line of the screen also displays the available command keys.

CONTENTS

Top

1. Overview
2. Entering Impedances
3. Environment Parameters
4. NETCALC Operations
5. Example - a Pi-Tank
6. NETCALC with Windows, Mac

End, Back

## Example - a Pi-Tank

You can tackle almost any network problem by entering the appropriate resistances and reactances, and adding them in series or in parallel.
For example, here is a pi-network design from the ARRL Handbook. It is intended to transform a 50-ohm load impedance into a load of 1.5kohms resistive, as seen by the anode of the tube.
To see how this happens, start up NETCALC and follow these instructions.
 Action In NETCALC 1. Set frequency to 3.75MHz. Enter F 3.75M. 2. Enter the 50 ohm load impedance in parallel with C2, 1375pF. Enter 50&1375pF. NETCALC converts 1375pF into reactance, so the result is 50 & -j30.866. 3. Convert the result from Step 2 into series-equivalent form. Press S. The result is 13.797 + -j22.349. 4. Enter L1, 7.02 microhenries. Enter 0 + 7.02uH. NETCALC converts this into 0 + j165.405, and the result from Step 3 moves up into the Y register. 5. Add the impedance in X and the impedance in Y. Get the result in series-equivalent form. Press +. The result is 13.797 + j143.056. Note: you could have skipped Step 3, because when you press +, NETCALC automatically converts all impedances into series-equivalent form before adding them together. 6. Convert the result into parallel-equivalent form. Press P. The result is 1.497k & j144.386 - so here is the 1.5k resistive impedance that the pi-tank presents to the tube. 7. The 1.5k impedance has a reactive compnent, which is tuned out by C1. Enter C1 = 294pF. Enter 0+294pf. The result from Step 6 moves up into the Y register. 8. Almost there! Combine the X and Y registers in parallel, and then convert into series-equivalent form. Press &, then press S. The result is 1.497k + -j3.011, in other words almost exactly 1.5k resistive, as intended. (The small remaining j term is due to the rounded-off values that we entered for C2, L1 and C1.)
CONTENTS

1. Overview
2. Entering Impedances
3. Environment Parameters
4. NETCALC Operations
5. Example - a Pi-Tank
6. NETCALC with Windows, Mac

End, Back

## NETCALC with Windows, Mac

NETCALC was originally a DOS program. It runs in a DOS box under Windows 95, 98 and ME, but these operating systems will not display special characters such as "ohms" correctly (if this worries you, "rem-out" the CODE PAGE commands in your \AUTOEXEC.BAT file). Windows XP restores support for special characters.

NETCALC is also available as a very neat click-button calculator for the Macintosh, written by Harry Whitfield, G6AUC.

CONTENTS